AREAS OF Website Development

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Practical suggestions can be found on everything spanning from variable method, school naming, code framework, code formatting, scaling all the way up to team controlling and software development job management. The major ramifications of business loss confronted by both client and the development company from the marketplace value.

Business Research and Systems Design is the analysis of concepts, operations and tools that pros use to plan and develop information systems to industry specifications. Some design changes may be produced during this period, but if it’ll really impede the developer’s capability to meet the deadline they may be left off for the moment.

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Company overview and industry analysis of bmw

The automobile industry has had a turbulent ride before few years because of economic conditions. Fierce competition and globalization possesses made manufacturers strive for their market shares. Buyers expectations, product development, differentiation strategy and large degrees of Research and Development have already been the major place of focus for the industry.

Bayerische Motoren Werke (BMW), which initially entered as an aircraft developing organization in 1917, had to get rid of its production after World War I in 1923 because of the Versailles Armistice Treaty. BMW then made a change to production of motorcycles in 1923. Finally, BMW started out the production of cars in 1928 now is one of the biggest automobile manufacturers around the world.

This case highlights the birth of BMW Group in britain (UK) together with the key concerns faced by the company, its marketing strategies, key competencies, market competition and brand positioning of BMW.

Key words: BMW, expansion in the UK, brand positioning, marketing strategies, company issues.


One of the ten major car manufacturers on the globe, Bayerische Motoren Werke (BMW) includes a long history of excellence. Founded in 1916, headquartered at Munich Germany, BMW started out its UK (UK) procedures in 1980 ( The BMW Group as well provides financial and it services such as for example customer relationship and supply chain management. Through durable company customs, detailed engineering, and pioneering improvements BMW Group has had the opportunity to determine itself as manufacturers of 1 of the very most elite automobiles on roads today.

UK may be the third largest market when it comes to sales and the second biggest in terms of production base ( "The BMW Group possesses invested over £800 million in its UK businesses since 2000." (

UK may be the only country where all of the three of the BMW Group brands- BMW, MINI and Rolls-Royce are created ( BMW (UK) Ltd employs 8000 employees and 11,000 persons across a 158 solid seller network. BMW Group was the first of all major automobile maker to get documentation to the worldwide environmental management common ISO14001. The business markets its automobiles through company-possessed showrooms, subsidiaries, independent dealers and importers.

Since its basis, the BMW brand has stood to begin with, "sheer driving enjoyment." Sporting and dynamic efficiency of its cars coupled with peerless design and unique quality, has led to the unique appeal of BMW automobiles ( "The main strategies are to identify potential and encourage expansion, knowing what they symbolize, recognising where their strengths lie and producing the best utilization of every opportunity." ( The automobiles division evolves, manufactures, assembles and sells passenger autos and off-road vehicles under the makes of BMW, Rolls-Royce and Mini. The exceptional achievements of the company during the past years can be quite a sketch of their strategys precision.

"The mission declaration up to the entire year 2020 is clearly described: the BMW Group may be the worlds leading company of premium items and premium solutions for individual mobility." (

Birth and progress of BMW in UK:

BMW (UK) Ltd expanded its functions in 1994 by firmly taking over the British Rover Group ( This included reputed makes like Rover, Area Rover and Mini automobiles.

BMW Group observed enough probable in the Rover Group and made a decision to enter the mass car industry in the UK. This plan was as well supported by the UK government as it would allow investment opportunities and assist in exploring new export market segments. This however, didn’t choose as BMW Group had planned. The company incurred huge losses after the takeover and sales declined. This led BMW Group to sell the Land Rover businesses to Ford. BMW (UK) Ltd and Rover split in-may 2000 ( However, BMW (UK) Ltd made a decision to continue with the Mini brand.

BMW Group obtained Rolls-Royce from Volkswagen in 1998 and attemptedto expand the blissful luxury segment. This proved as a direct competition to Mercedes Maybach and was effective in biting into its industry. The turnover of BMW (UK) Ltd was £ 3.3 billion in 2008.

The development of BMW (UK) Ltd Mini has never been able to surpass the demand worldwide. This led BMW (UK) Ltd to re-assess its manufacturing process along with technology. The new approach was derived in 2006 to handle this and is called ‘production triangle ( The final assembly of vehicles and overall body shell are carried out at the plant at Oxford. The Hams Hall plant is employed for outsourcing engines. Swindon plant handles the fabrications and main pressings. Therefore, the advantage received at one plant is certainly used in other to enhance the procedure. Heavy existence of KUKA robots along with a good integration of the ‘creation triangle the production of Mini has been very increased (Mortimer, 2008). Therefore, this production triangle of the three BMW (UK) Ltd vegetation can be highlighted as a significant core competency since it has resulted in a growth in the development and an increase in the sales of Mini everywhere.

BMW (UK) Ltd spends plenty of money regarding R & D on its autos. This is why why BMW (UK) Ltd, as their primary competency has innovated engines like Hydrogen combustion engine, hydrogen H2R and straight six petrol engine.

Positioning and Branding of BMW:

"The positioning notion indicates how the management wants purchasers to perceive the companys manufacturer" (Cravens and Piercy, 2009). "A clear positioning strategy can insure that the elements of the marketing method are regular and supportive." (Cravens and Piercy, 2009). In this regard BMW provides positioned the manufacturer as the lone car that offers both luxury and efficiency. Its German legacy and reliance on patterns, plus a clever marketing strategy, BMW has had the opportunity to achieve (1) a point of difference on efficiency and a spot of parity on high end regarding luxury cars and (2) a spot of difference on extravagance and a spot of parity on efficiency regarding performance cars. The smart slogan, "The Ultimate Driving Machine," effectively captured the recently created umbrella category-luxury overall performance cars.

"The positioning strategy may be the blend of marketing program (mix) strategies employed to portray the positioning wanted by supervision to the targeted customers." (Cravens and Piercy, 2009).

BMW (UK) Ltd provides led its marketing programmes in various ways. The successful marketing of BMW through media and film industry increases its gain and creates an appeal because of its customers. "Colour press for example: Tatler, Vogue, lifestyle journals, motoring publications, broadsheet newspapers and tabloid newspaper weekend color supplements. BMW has highly influenced customers through press and film industry useful advice on how to write a scholarly paper" (Origin: BMW education programme). BMW automobiles have made their occurrence in Bond movies like Octopussy, Golden Attention, Tomorrow Under no circumstances Dies and The Environment ISN’T Enough (

"Global publicity, communicated in partly subliminal means and partly by overt ones, is positive and important, because it reaches a wide section of the public quiet often on a world-wide scale" (

BMW (UK) Ltd possesses managed to market the merchandise in a differentiated way. The concept of BMW Artwork Car was were only available in 1975 ( BMW Art Autos are displayed in museums and art galleries across the world, just like the Royal Academy of Arts in London ( In the last twenty years 15 BMW Art Automobiles were created by performers like Andy Warhol, Michael Jagamara Nelson and Matazo Kayama (

BMW Group is usually a Tier One Spouse and the lone automobile producer to sponsor the London Olympics 2012. The company will give out 4000 vehicles to help transportation of athletes, press officials, complex officials and Athletics Federations members ( During the games the company has promised to supply vehicles that may deliver ‘low carbon and ‘healthy living.

Reacting to environmentally friendly pressures BMW (UK) Ltd has promised to meet the Euro 6 emission norms and in addition outdo the maximum ordinary of 120gCO2/km established by LOCOG (The London Organising Committee of the Olympic Games and Paralympic Games). (

Facing the marketplace competition- A genuine challenge:

"Porters five forces of competition incorporate three sources of "horizontal" competition: competition from substitutes, competition from entrants, and competition from established rivals; and two resources of "vertical" competition: the energy of suppliers and electric power of buyers" (Grant 2010).

Entry into the automobile industry requires a substantial amount of purchase. High costs of setup, infrastructure, plant and machinery, distribution network and research and advancement make it tough for just about any innovative competitor to enter the marketplace. BMW (UK) Ltd previously enjoys large economies of scale and this can only be performed in the long term. The brand photograph of BMW is very high and so to surpass this, a huge amount of spending would be required.

BMW (UK) Ltd provides outsourced the assembly and production of some parts to create its procedures stronger. This likewise reduces the risk of a new entrant since it will be an additional expense for them. By outsourcing a business may gain strategic gain by focusing on its core competencies, while outsourcing additional necessary business capabilities to independent companions (Cravens and Piercy, 2009). BMW (UK) Ltd made a decision to outsource its engineering and development for the X3 small SUV to Magna Steyr in Austria. This increased their production productivity remarkably. BMW (UK) Ltd has also outsourced its procedures to low wage countries like Indonesia, Thailand and India.

Outsourcing to a third party always involves hazards despite its positive aspects. Outsourcing may be attractive regarding reducing production costs and for that reason allows laying more give attention to marketing, product innovation and Research and Creation (R & D). However, the third party may occur as a risk since it can share data with rivals, rendering it difficult to replace them.

The partnership between BMW (UK) Ltd and Fiat (mutual utilization of elements of Mini and Alpha Romeo), is referred to as a competitive benefit. Since Fiat is usually in a contract, it cannot bind itself right into a partnership with any different automobile manufacturer. Very few automobile manufacturers have the ability to create such partnerships to their advantage. This framework is very tough to replicate as well. Collaboration with a partner with equal volume of understanding of the market and regarding operations could be rarely found. These kinds of frameworks are likewise very costly in nature and therefore, make it problematic for any competitor to get into.

"For some industries, the major determinant of the entire express of competition and general level of profitability is certainly competition among the businesses within the market" (Grant 2010). Majority of the manufacturers lay superb emphasis on developing their items and design and attracting new innovations.

The direct competition of

BMW in UK will be as follows:

1 series: Mercedes A class, Audi A3, Volkswagen Golf and Ford Focus.

3 Series: Audi A4, Jaguar X-Type, Mercedes C-Class, Lexus IS200

5 Series: Audi A6, Mercedes E-Class, Saab9-5, Jaguar S-Type, Volvo S80

6 Series: Jaguar XK, Mercedes SL, Porsche 911 and Lexus SC340.

7 Series: Audi A good8 and S8, Jaguar XJ series, Lexus LS400, Mercedes S-Class.

X3: Area Rover Freelander, Nissan X-Trail, Jeep Cherokee and Honda CR-V.

X5: Range Rover, Mercedes M-Course, Volvo XC90, Porsche Cayenne, VW Touareg.

Z4: Porsche Boxster, Mercedes SLK, Honda S2000, Nissan 350Z and Audi TT.

M Assortment: M3 Coupe- Mercedes C55 and Audi RS4, Mercedes E5 AMG, Audi RS6, Jaguar S-Type and Porsche Cayenne Turbo, M6- Ferrari F340 and Aston Martin DB9.

MINI: Renault Clio. Peugeot 206, Toyota Yaris, Vauxhall Corsa, VW Polo, Nissan Micra.

The Rolls-Royce Phantom: Mercedes Maybach 57, Bentley Flying Spur, Maserati Quattroporte and Mercedes S65 AMG Limousine.

(Source: BMW Education Programme)

Choo and Mokhtarian (2004) argue that high end segment customers where BMW has put itself have higher-level of disposable money hence they dont look for generic substitution of items that compete on disposable profits. But purchase of various other luxury products like pricey watch, jewels, shirts, hand bags, and house may functions as a trade-off for purchase of luxury cars.

Suppliers and manufactures work together to deliver excellence. This creates huge dependency between purchasers and retailers. Suppliers are a fundamental element of BMWs manufacturing process. A lot of them have been referred to as partners of their organization and influence their method to a great extent. Since, the quantity of suppliers is increasing global it increases their bargaining power as well. BMW includes a strong brand picture and an extensive base; this sets the suppliers on a high platform dealing with BMW. Accordingly, their bargaining vitality remains medium. The costs of raw materials are very volatile in dynamics, which again lowers the bargaining ability of suppliers.

The brand legacy is normally a hindrance which decreases the shifting of customers between various options available in that segment. BMW being truly a strong manufacturer reduces this mobility. Even so, potential buyers in this segment use a lot of time finding info on the products. This raises their negotiating powers.

According to BMW they place all their cars in the premium segment ( Therefore, it becomes necessary to be prominent in comparison with others. Differentiation strategy includes a huge role to enjoy in this regard. Branding is the prime area of concentrate for BMW. Once the branding is done the right way, the brand becomes noticeable and creates an appeal to the customers, as they like to see it.

Due to the recession in the past few years, the key focus of the corporation has been to arrange liquidity. BMW offers been able to attain the same by beginning their own in-house financing and lease financing to its buyers. The major risk faced by the company during lack of liquidity is certainly that of a takeover, and BMW has had the opportunity to avoid that. They also face major issues in terms of oil prices and raw material prices. These are highly volatile in aspect and therefore, less predictable. Nevertheless, this once again has been looked after by their in-house finance division through risk hedging activities.

When it involves competition BMW has not been able to match the volume in ways of expense. There are high quantity producers who certainly are a direct competition to BMW. The strategy is to use the excess sources of one area to all of those other business areas. Makers of bigger volumes will lead in a cost leadership strategy. They will enjoy larger economies of scale and for that reason, cost advantage. BMW even so, runs on the differentiation strategy. They don’t produce volume cars but maintain the image of their premium cars. This allows them to get by charging reduced price on the cars. Even so, BMW has decrease their costs in other areas.

It wouldnt be wrong to say that branding continues to be the key factor for BMW as a significant success factor.

The VRIO (Value, Rarity, Imitation, and Corporation) framework assists in analysing the internal sources of an organisation. The framework is structured around some questions, which have to get answered with yes to ensure that the source to qualify as a potential sustainable competitive advantage.

In case of a VRIO framework, one source is usually compared on the four factors and this helps in understanding the difference between competitive parity and sustainable competitive edge.








Munich, Headquarters





Competitive parity

Portfolio of Brands





Competitive advantage

Fiat as suppliers




Yes/ no

Competitive advantage

Financing- In-house





Competitive parity

Supplier relationship





Competitive parity

The main reference of BMW (UK) Ltd is its company portfolio. Its very exceptional that a manufacturer has a portfolio where they are able to charge a premium across almost all their brands. BMW has been successful in doing so. That is an enormous threat to the competitors and a challenge given that they cannot imitate this.

Innovation is definitely BMWs concentration. No compromise on creativity helps them to grow constantly. BMW has been able to stitch their branding and invention very creatively. Their fantastic R & D has had the opportunity to achieve solutions that assist their brand grow in the market. Since, BMW is capable of doing so, it makes them stronger in the foreseeable future perspective as well.

It is both precious and rare to rank at the very top, when university students are asked about their preference for future employment (BMW AR, 2009).

Question 1: Carry out and analyse the situation analysis of BMW.

SWOT analysis will be applied to conduct the situation research of BMW (UK) Ltd. Employing SWOT the strengths, weakness, prospects and threats of the company will be identified. "Strengths and weakness relate to the internal resources and functions of the business, as perceived by the customers" (Piercy, 2002); and "Opportunities and threats will be externally oriented issues that can potentially influence the efficiency of a business" (Baines et al, 2009: 188).

BMW (UK) Ltd because of its German legacy is regarded as trustworthy and top quality of engineering. It has remarkably helped BMW to build its brand image. The successful marketing of BMW through media and film industry adds to its gain and creates an charm how to write a reaction paper because of its customers. Colour press for instance: Tatler, Vogue, lifestyle journals, motoring publications, broadsheet newspapers and tabloid newspaper weekend colour supplements. BMW has highly influenced customers through media and film industry (Resource: BMW education programme).

The latest CO2 emission norms and legislations concerning End Life of Vehicles (ELV) have already been a major danger to BMW (UK) Ltd. However, the company has prevailed in turning this into power. Innovation of ‘hybrid vehicles and ‘smarter motors has given BMW an edge. Raising demand for ‘greener cars as well allows them to explore new market segments. BMW (UK) Ltd has got reacted on ELV directive and is now manufacturing cars, which are in least 85% recyclable and at least up to 95% recoverable (Group Administration report 2008, p.32).

Prices of the recycleables used have been unpredictable for BMW (UK) Ltd because of its volatile dynamics. BMW (UK) Ltd possesses taken care of this with their in-house finance division.

BMW (UK) Ltd due to its large exports of Mini faces key currency risks. This again has been looked after by their expert in-house finance section through financial hedging.

BMW (UK) Ltd faces a major weakness when it comes to the company Mini. Since its just produced in the UK, BMW (UK) Ltd can be forced to incur substantial costs on shipping abroad. As a strategic decision this may also be stated in other countries.

BMW (UK) Ltd due to its valuable company perception enjoys the chance of charging an extra premium on its automobiles.

China being the major market for cars is seen as an opportunity for BMW (UK) Ltd. They are able to get into an arrangement with the Chinese and develop Mini within their country.

BMW (UK) Ltd offers had the opportunity to diversify its businesses by providing leasing financing to its customers. This allows its customers to help make the cars easily available to them.

The company should look into emerging markets for expansion since, US and European countries take into account its major sales and also have been affected because of economic recession.


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BMW Group Deliveries of automobiles by place and market

Hamlet And The Theories Of Tragedy

Hamlet And The Theories Of Tragedy

Shakespeares Hamlet includes many theories and components of tragedy, which two will be mentioned in this essay. Shakespeare addresses Aristotles theory of tragedy, but he challenges the idea in many aspects through setting, plot, and character. Shakespeare seems to intensely combine the “wheel of fortune” theory of tragedy, mostly through the type Hamlet.

Aristotle, who is concerned with formal presentation of tragic takes on, defines tragedy as: “…a representation of an actions that is worth serious attention, complete alone, and of some amplitude; in vocabulary enriched by a number of artistic devices ideal to the several elements of the play; presented in the form of action, not narration; through pity and fear bringing about the purgation of such emotion.” (Aristotle 38 – 9) Shakespeare employs identity and plot to be able to create an atmosphere that is unsettling and dark, which instead of conjuring dread and pity instead sets up an atmosphere rank with revenge. In this manner, Hamlet will not follow Aristotle’s explanation of tragedy. Another of the methods Aristotle characterizes tragedy is usually through “The noble activities and the doings of noble individuals” (Aristotle 35). Relating to Aristotle, Hamlet ought to be a noble person committing noble actions. This is very best represented in the picture where Hamlet won’t kill Claudius during prayer. This becomes the turning stage for Hamlet, where he genuinely turns into an ignoble person, declaring he desires Claudius’ “Soul may be damned and dark-colored/ As hell, whereto it will go.” Hamlet truly wants Claudius to undergo in the most severe possible manner, and in doing so Hamlet falls from nobility.

Aristotle likewise believed heroes are “First of all and foremost very good” (Aristotle 51). Hamlet does indeed contemplate very good and evil frequently, but in the end Hamlet fall from the path of goodness. Fortinbras may have been the kind of hero Aristotle characterizes, but Fortinbras is not a tragic persona. The plot occurrences with which Aristotle disagrees provide meaning to Hamlet’s theme. Shakespeare intentionally portrays various characters unheroic. For instance, Hamlet will not treat Ophelia well, but as well Ophelia’s unwavering loyalty to her dad causes her to take care of Hamlet badly. Both individuals invoke disgust from the reader from their ignoble actions. The only essay example characters who act somewhat heroic happen to be Horatio and Fortinbras. Interestingly, they are the only two individuals who make it through, so Shakespeare may be making some sort of commentary on Aristotle’s tragic hero.

Another theory of tragedy has to do with the “wheel of fortune.” This kind of “Tragedy was perceived as a reversal of fortune, a fall from a higher position. This check out of tragedy derives from the Medieval concept of fortune, that was personified as Dame Fortune, a blindfolded female who turned a wheel at whim; men were stationed at many spots on the wheel–the the surface of the wheel represented the best fortune, being under the wheel the most severe fortune. However, the wheel could transform suddenly and the man at the top could suddenly be beneath the wheel, without warning.” (Landmarks of Literature)

There are many occasions where Shakespeare includes these factors of tragedy into Hamlet. At the start of the take up, Horatio cries out to the Ghost, “Speak to me: If thou art work privy to thy country’s fate, / Which, happily, foreknowing may prevent, / O, speak!” Horatio’s outburst suggests that fate isn’t inevitable, but previous Horatio indicates that the Ghost is a bad omen, exactly like in Rome before the “mightiest Julius fell” and “the graves stood tenantless and the sheeted dead/ Have squeak and gibber in the Roman roads.” Horatio’s conception of fate embodies the fate of the the complete country, not the average person.

In response to a comment about how exactly mens’ “faults” can ruin reputations, Hamlet responds by declaring, “Carrying, I state, the stamp of one defect/ Becoming nature’s livery or fortune’s star/ Their virtues else- be they clean as grace/ As infinite as person may undertake/ Shall in the overall censure take corruption/ From that particular fault.” Hamlet establishes his look at of fate and negative character with this say; he thinks you happen to be sometimes born with bad features or you get them through the environment (through no device of your), but it isn’t something that one is in control of; rather it is something that simply takes place to a person, and there is absolutely no way to avoid it.

Later in this picture Hamlet exclaims, “My fate cries out, / And will make each petty artery in this human body / As hardy as the Nemean lion’s nerve.” Hamlet believes it really is his fate to follow the ghost, and since it is his fate he is given the power and vigor with which to accomplish it.

Hamlet asks Rosencrantz and Guildenstern how they will be, and Guildenstern answers, “Happy, in that we are not over-happy, on fortune’s cap we aren’t the very button.” That is a joke that implies that Guildenstern and Rosencrantz live in Fortune’s “privates;” This joke means that Fortune is usually a whore. Soon after in the same picture, the idea that Fortune is usually a whore comes up again in a more serious tone. During a take up, Hamlet asks the Initial Player to recite the piece of the loss of life of Priam. Later on, the player comments:

Out, away, thou strumpet, Fortune! Whatever you gods,

In general synod take away her power;

Break all the spokes and fellies from her wheel,

And bowl the round nave down the hill of heaven,

As low regarding the fiends! (2.2.493-497)

The player is asking the gods to break Fortune’s wheel and roll her down to hell. The idea is our destinies are merely random, when people try to climb on top of the wheel it could simply move and the person on top becomes the one becoming crushed by the wheel. The First Player’s speech calls for a fate ruled by something apart from Fortune example of essay.

Hamlet’s third soliloquy suggests that fortune is simply out to hurt you and questioning whether it’s even worthwhile to concern the wheel of fortune: “To be, or not to be: that is the issue: / Whether ’tis nobler in your brain to undergo / The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune, / Or to take arms against a sea of troubles, / And by opposing end them?”

Before the play The Murder of Gonzago, Hamlet stands by itself with Horatio and commends him as “A guy that Fortune’s buffets and benefits / Hast ta’en with equal thanks.” Hamlet goes on to compliment Horatio for not getting “a pipe for Fortune’s finger” to play; Hamlet shows up envious of Horatio, praising him for a quality that Hamlet himself lacks. Hamlet sees himself as “passion’s slave,” somebody who cannot maintain a stable identity or perception of self.

In The Murder of Gonzago the Participant King tells his wife that he hopes when he dies she’ll find a good gentleman and remarry. The wife claims vehemently she’ll not find another spouse after his death, to which the king responds: “This community is not for aye, nor ’tis not strange / That actually our loves should with our fortunes change.” The king highlights that a person who has been favored by fortune could just simply because easily drop his fortune, and with it his good friends, cash, wife, etc. The king doesn’t address it as though it really is something to get deplored, but simply the way of life and something that should be recognized, because “Our wills and fates do consequently contrary run / That our devices still happen to be overthrown; / Our thoughts happen to be ours, their ends none of our very own.” In the end, the king is most suitable, and the wife quickly remarries after the king’s death.

After Polonius features been stabbed, Hamlet says to your body, “take thy fortune; / Thou find’st to be as well busy is some threat.” Hamlet believes Polonius’ “fortune” was not simply bad luck; Hamlet believes Polonius brought his own bad luck after himself and had earned his own death. In the future in the same scene, Hamlet says, “Because of this same lord, / I do repent: but heaven hath pleased it therefore, / To punish me with this and this with me, / That I have to be their scourge and minister.” According to this view of issues, Polonius’ death isn’t an accident at all, but component of a divine strategy.

In the last picture of the take up, Hamlet writes to Horatio about how precisely he found his private death warrant. Hamlet said he was sneaking around and told Horatio, “let us know, / Our indiscretion occasionally serves us very well, / When our deep plots do pall: and that should teach us / There’s a divinity that forms our ends, / Rough-hew them how exactly we will.” Hamlet shows that despite the fact that something may look random it could be part of a plan that will turn out for the better. Then simply, later, Hamlet repeats the idea; Horatio asks how Hamlet could own possibly sealed a fresh warrant with the king’s seal. Hamlet replies, “Why, even in that was heaven ordinant” and explains that Hamlet acquired his father’s signet by chance and used it to help make the seal. Even in the future in the scene, before the final fencing duel, Hamlet says that everything can be “ill” in his heart and soul. He doesn’t hint that this feeling is normally prophetic of his very own death at all, but when Horatio offers to phone off the fencing match, Hamlet speaks as if he knows he’s going to die:

Not a whit, we defy augury: there’s a special

providence in the fall of a sparrow. If it become now,

’tis not to come; if it be not to come, it will be

now; if it get not now, yet it’ll come: the

readiness is certainly all: since no man has aught of what he

leaves, what is’t to leave betimes? Let be.

In another view of this revenge tragedy, Hamlet is the player of a Senecan tragedy. “He is involved with a sensational murder scene, commanded by a Senecan ghost desiring revenge, and after hampered by courtroom intrigue, resorts to feigned madness. Since apparitions happen to be known to tell half-truths to deceive persons, Hamlet is given instruction without a resolute plan. For majority of the play, he acts with enthusiasm and indecision and he proceeds with the ghost’s wants as his adversary allows. And, for the most part, just Claudius, Hamlet, and Horatio understand the action of revenge.” (Landmarks of Literature)

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